0.2083783827 FactsOfIsrael.com

FactsOfIsrael.com covers the basic facts on the State of Israel and the Middle East. This includes Maps, the History of the region, Statistics, and more. We also post articles related to the Victims of Palestinian Terrorism, Anti-Semitism, Jewish History, and also a bit of Humor, News and Opinions.

Random Fact:

Fact 70: "About 90% of Israel's inhabitants live in some 200 urban centers, some of which are located on ancient historical sites. About 5% are members of unique rural cooperative settlements - the kibbutz and the moshav."

Click here for another random fact,
or to get all 399 facts, download the free screensaver.

FactsOfIsrael.com is not affiliated with any government, company, or institution. This is simply a personal attempt to give information on Israel and the Middle East. It takes time to manage the site and publish the screensaver and I incur all of the hosting costs. If you are a regular reader, please consider making a donation or purchasing the screensaver. I thank you in advance.

News, Links and Comments

Note: 15 random articles are displayed below. Refresh this page to display another set of random articles.
Arab Support for Palestinian homicide/suicide bombers (06.16.2002)

Palestinian TerrorismThe Weekly Standard (www.weeklystandard.com) has a good article on MEMRI, the Middle East Media Research Institute.

MEMRI has pioneered the careful translation, and dissemination to European and American audiences, of print and broadcast news sources in the Arab world. The group's work now pops up everywhere; here in the States, hardly a week goes by when some major daily or cable news show doesn't make use (generally without attribution) of a MEMRI translation.

It gives a few examples on recent work done by MEMRI:

And it is hair-raisingly insane. The April 25, 2002 interview with Prof. 'Adel Sadeq, head of the psychiatry faculty at 'Ein Shams University in Cairo, for example. Professor Sadeq beams with glee as he explains how Western civilization "has no concepts such as self-sacrifice and honor," which is why Americans fail to understand that the suicide bomber experiences "the height of ecstasy and happiness" just at the moment when, "ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one, and then he presses the button to blow himself up." Big smile.

Then there's the May 9, 2002, program on "discipline in the family," featuring one Jasem Al-Mutawah, an "expert on family matters," who patiently describes to his viewers where on her body, how severely, with what weapon, and under what circumstances a man should beat his wife.

There's also an interview with a 3 1/2 year-old that describes how she hates Jews - I copy the full article below.

For more translations of the Arab press check www.Memri.org

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (2) |    Link to this page | 

UN resolutions against Iraq and Israel are different (10.21.2002)

OpinionThe Economist (www.economist.com), generally a rabid anti-Israeli publication, has published an article on how there's no comparison between Iraq's refusal to comply with UN security council resolutions and Israel's refusal to do so:

The UN distinguishes between two sorts of Security Council resolution. Those passed under Chapter Six deal with the peaceful resolution of disputes and entitle the council to make non-binding recommendations. Those under Chapter Seven give the council broad powers to take action, including warlike action, to deal with “threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression”. Such resolutions, binding on all UN members, were rare during the cold war. But they were used against Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait. None of the resolutions relating to the Israeli-Arab conflict comes under Chapter Seven. By imposing sanctions—including military ones—against Iraq but not against Israel, the UN is merely acting in accordance with its own rules. [...]

In the long and intractable conflict over Palestine, both sides consider themselves victims. The Palestinians say that their national rights were usurped by an intruder; the Israelis that the Palestinians never accepted the Jewish right to self-determination. The UN's approach has been to recognise the complexity of these respective claims, lay down broad principles, and urge a negotiated peace. The case of Iraq could hardly be more different. That country is in conflict with the UN itself, having refused to comply with the clear instructions, under Chapter Seven, to give up its weapons of mass destruction.

I copy the full article below.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (4) |    Link to this page | 

Israel will have general elections on 1/28/2003 (11.05.2002)

NewsThe Jerusalem Post (www.jpost.com) reports that Israel will have general elections on January 28th 2003:

Prime Minister Ariel Sharon announced his support for early elections on Tuesday, just short of two years since he took office, receiving approval from President Moshe Katsav to dissolve the Knesset and hold elections within 90 days.

The Knesset Law Committee is to meet Wednesday to finalize January 28 as the date for the election, because the law requires that elections be held on a Tuesday before the 90 days are up on February 3.

For more information on how, contrary to its Arab neighbors, Israel is a full democracy, please check the Democracy page.

Here are a few thoughts:

1) Why would Sharon allow Bibi Netanyahu to become Foreign Minister in his government? Wouldn't that give credibility to Bibi, who hasn't acted in any official capacity in the past couple of years? Yes, but that's precidely what Sharon wants. My guess is that he knows Bibi will win the Likud primaries and for the greater good of the party, he wants to give credibility to Bibi to help him (and the Likud) win the elections against Labor in 90 days.

2) The Labor party is trying to turn the elections into a discussion about the current government's support for the settlements instead of support for the developing cities in Israel ("Arei Hapituach"). In other words, make the people who are suffering today for economic reasons blame Sharon and the Likud for transferring money to the settlers in the West Bank and Gaza (0.03% of the budget). That's going to backfire: most of the people living in the developing cities will not vote for a leftist government - they are mostly Sephardim who have hawkish political views and would not want to give up the disputed territories. Instead, they'll vote for Shas, which although doesn't really represent them (they are ultra-Orthodox, while most Sephardim living in the developing cities are secular/traditionalists), will be able to pick up on the economic agenda and will have some political gains out of Labor's misplaced attacks.

You heard it here first folks. Ok, you may call my site "Foresight and Facts Of Israel" from now on. ;-)

I copy below the full article.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (2) |    Link to this page | 

The silence of the United Nations is Deafening (06.23.2002)

HumorJewsweek (www.jewsweek.com) has an interesting article on the United Nations and Kofi Annan, its Secretary General. The writer of the article, Jeff Dunetz, is worried about Mr. Annan, since he hasn't said a word about the latest murders of unarmed Israeli civilians (including kids) by Palestinian killers.

I am very concerned about Kofi Annan, the Secretary General of the United Nations. He is a great moral man, even won the Nobel Peace Prize. Kofi Annan is always the first to speak out when there is even the slightest perception of nation doing wrong. Remember how took a stand in the Mideast, saying how can Israel be right and the whole world wrong? Remember how quick he was to raise awareness of Jenin when he thought that there was a massacre there? This guy is a neutral peacemaker with high moral standards.

Over the last few weeks he has been strangely silent. The longer he is silent, the more I am concerned for his well-being. When Israel captured all those documents directly linking Arafat and the Palestinian Authority to terrorist acts, I just knew he would indignantly challenge Arafat to clean up his act. Yet this man who fights world morality was silent. That's when I began to suspect that something was up.

I copy the full article below.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (5) |    Link to this page | 

Russia, 1905, hundreds of Jews are killed in Anti-Jewish riots (pogroms) (10.21.2002)

Jewish HistoryThe Jerusalem Post's feature "This day in history" reports on October 18, 1905, when hundreds of Jews were murdered by Russians in anti-Jewish riots:

1905: A week-long pogrom marking one of the bloodiest periods in Russian Jewish history begins, spreading to dozens of towns and villages throughout Russia. Hundreds of Jews are killed, thousands are wounded and over forty thousand homes and shops are destroyed in the rioting.

I copy below an article that gives an overview of the pogroms. For all of you racists that send me hate messages because of my support for Israel, hear this: we will never give up the State of Israel - we will always fight for its survival.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (21) |    Link to this page | 

Mother of 3 is victim of Palestinian Terrorism (05.15.2002)

VictimsFaces of the Victims just published a picture and the story of Anat Teremforush, 35, a mother of 3, who was murdered by Palestinian terrorists on 5/7.

Anat Teremforush, 35, was mother of 3

Another 15 people were killed, many elderly, and 55 were wounded after a Palestinian homicide/suicide bomber detonated a powerful charge in a game club South of Tel-Aviv.

"Anat and Danny Teremforush went to the Sheffield Club with family members. They told their three children they would be safe because the terrorist attacks had stopped. Anat died instantly in the exlosion. Danny was injured, as were Anat's mother, Hannah Almasi, and her sister Batsheva. "How do I tell my children they don't have a mother?" asked Danny from his hospital bed"

I copy the full article below.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (0) |    Link to this page | 

Fact 353: Arafat failed miserably in rejecting peace in October 2000 (12.04.2002)

NewsletterThe latest FactsOfIsrael.com newsletter has been sent.

This week's fact is Fact 353: Arafat failed miserably in rejecting peace in October 2000.

Click here to check out the latest newsletter, and please subscribe (for free) if you haven't already done so.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (1) |    Link to this page | 

Alguns Italianos são anti-semitas (Portuguese) (09.03.2002)

Anti-SemitismO site Pletz.com publicou um artigo traduzido do Italiano que mostra como certos Italianos são anti-Semitas.

Quando o cemitério judaico em Roma foi destruído recentemente, trouxe à mente a controversa declaração feita pelo porta-voz da Câmara dos Deputados da Itália, Pier Ferdinando Casini - um membro de um partido de centro da coalizão do primeiro-ministro Silvio Berlusconi - que disse que o anti-semitismo é menos prevalecente na Itália do que em outros países. Acho necessário observar a distinção entre anti-semitismo intelectual e anti-semitismo popular.

O anti-semitismo popular é tão velho quanto a Diáspora. Nasceu de uma reação instintiva por parte das massas a um grupo de pessoas que eram diferentes, falavam uma língua não familiar que evocava rituais mágicos; um grupo de pessoas acostumadas a uma cultura das escrituras sagradas, com as quais os judeus aprendiam a ler e a escrever; eles cultivavam a medicina, os negócios, a prática de emprestar dinheiro - foi aí que nasceu o ressentimento nos olhos dos "intelectuais". O anti-semitismo rural na Rússia teve essas raízes.

Para o resto do artigo clique em baixo.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (0) |    Link to this page | 

Israel wins war on Islamic fanatics from Gaza (Hamas) (02.01.2009)


The History News Network (www.hnn.us) has published a good analysis by Prof. Martin Kramer on how Israel has won last month's war against Hamas and other Islamic fanatics in Gaza:

Israeli soldiers celebrate after their convincing victory in the war
against Hamas and other Palestinian Islamic fanatics in December 2008

[...] When Israel launched its operation, Hamas announced a secondary objective: to inflict significant military casualties on the Israelis. For this purpose, it had built up a network of fortifications supposedly on the Lebanon model, which it promised to turn into a "graveyard" for Israeli forces.

The military wing announced that "the Zionist enemy will see surprises and will regret carrying out such an operation and will pay a heavy price. Our militants are waiting with patience to confront the soldiers face to face." This too never happened. The Hamas line quickly folded, its "fighters" shed their uniforms and melted into the civilian population. That Hamas failed to fight did surprise many Israeli soldiers, who had expected more.

But there was no battle anywhere, and Israel suffered only 10 military fatalities, half of them from friendly fire. Hamas has taken to claiming that Israel has hidden its military casualties, and has thrown out various numbers—a rather precise measure of what it had hoped and failed to achieve.

[...] If the "siege" of Gaza is significantly eased or lifted (which I still think is unlikely), it won't be because Palestinian "resistance" forced Israel's hand. It will be because Palestinian suffering has weighed on the conscience of others. That's a very old story, and there's nothing new or "heroic" about it. Those [Palestinians] who've promised to liberate Jerusalem and Palestine by arms are (again) begging the world for sacks of flour.

The war on Hamas, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and other Muslim fanatics continues.  I copy the full article below.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (2) |    Link to this page | 

Another Palestinian Homicide/Suicide Bombing: 3 dead, dozens of injured (05.19.2002)

Palestinian TerrorismAt 4:00 PM local time, a Palestinian blew himself in a crowded Israeli market trying to kill as many Israeli civilians as possible.

The Palestinian homicide/suicide bomber is part of the PFLP, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. This group wishes for the destruction of Israel and the creation of a Palestinian state instead. It is responsible for the murder of Rahavam Ze'evi, who was Israel's Minister of Tourism when he was killed.

"Two bodies were found at the scene of the attack, one of which was most likely that of the suicide bomber. Two other Israelis succumbed to their injuries after reaching the hospital. One of the injured was in critical condition, eight were in serious condition, five sustained moderate wounds, and the rest were lightly injured"

I copy the full article below.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (0) |    Link to this page | 

Peace talks between Israel and Palestinians (12.11.2002)

HumorFactsOfIsrael.com has just learned that peace talks between Israel and the Palestinians have resumed! Hopefully we will be able to see some results soon and peace will be achieved. We have received exclusive coverage of the negotiations - here's the scoop:

The Prime Minister of Israel sits down with Arafat at the beginning of negotiations regarding the resolution of the conflict. The Prime Minister requests that he be allowed to begin with a story.

Arafat replies, "Of course."

The Prime Minister begins his story: "Years before the Israelites came to the Promised Land and settled here, Moses led them for 40 years through the desert. The Israelites began complaining that they were thirsty and, lo and behold, a miracle occurred and a stream appeared before them. They drank their fill and then decided to take advantage of the stream to do some bathing-including Moses.

When Moses came out of the water, he found that all his clothing was missing. "Who took my clothes?" Moses asked those around him.

"It was the Palestinians," replied the Israelites.

"Wait a minute," objected Arafat immediately, "there were no Palestinians during the time of Moses!"

"All right," replies the Prime Minister, "Now that we've got that settled, let's begin our negotiations."

I'll keep everyone posted with more details as soon as I get them.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (3) |    Link to this page | 

Fact 56: Israel is the only Democracy in the Middle East. (06.30.2002)

NewsletterThe latest FactsOfIsrael.com newsletter has been sent.

This week's fact is Fact 56: Israel is the only Democracy in the Middle East.

Click here to check out the latest newsletter, and please subscribe if you haven't already done so.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (0) |    Link to this page | 

Islamic school in Kenya glorifies the killing of Christians (01.30.2003)

Palestinian TerrorismThe British Independent has a story on an Islamic school in Kenya:

Eleven teenage boys have been rescued from an Islamic correction centre in Nairobi where they were chained, tortured, and indoctrinated with violent anti-Christian ideas. Armed police raided the school in a rundown Nairobi neighbourhood after Guleed Ahmed, a 16-year-old from Leicester, faked an illness to escape and raise the alarm. [...]

The school, the Khadija Islamic Institute of Discipline and Education, was in Eastleigh, a rough and dangerous neighbourhood dominated by ethnic Somalis. As police led the boys out last Monday, an angry crowd pelted them with stones, forcing officers to fire warning shots in the air. [...]

Relatives had sent the teenagers to Khadija Institute to learn about Islam. Little did they know the sub-prison conditions to which they were subjected them. Schooling involved study of the Koran, with some lessons in English, Arabic and maths, always with their arms bound in chains. Sport was impossible.

Meals were spartan and usually accompanied by a thrashing. "They cane you on the head, back, legs, bottom, everywhere," Guleed said. "How many times, it was impossible to know many. They called it 'the medicine'." [...]

Hashim Ali, 16, who lived in Stockholm for 12 years before an uncle enrolled him in Khadija last June, said the killing of Christians was glorified in the school. "They told us it's called jihad," he said. "They said if you enter a church with bombs and kill yourself, you will go to heaven."

I thought these Islamic fascists could not surprise me anymore with their intolerance, hate and fanatism. I was wrong.

By the way, the Independent also mentions the following at the end of the article:

Last November's terrorist bomb attack against tourists at a Mombasa hotel in which 18 people died has raised fears in Kenya of a surge in extremism, influenced by hardliners from neighbouring Somalia. Three of the six attack suspects are Kenyan, and at least one is thought to have fled to Somalia

For obvious reasons of bias and unfairness, the Independent, this British leftist daily, fails to mention that the terrorist attack in Mombasa specifically targeted Israeli tourists - luckily you may click here for that story ("Terrorists attack Israeli tourists in Kenya - 12 people murdered, including two Israeli children, over 80 injured").

I copy the full article below - thanks to LGF for the link.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (2) |    Link to this page | 

More great news: Yasser Arafat, the Palestinian terrorist, is dead! (11.11.2004)

NewsThe Boston Globe (www.boston.com) has some great news: Yasser Arafat, the Palestinian excuse for a leader, is dead:

Good news from the Jerusalem Post


By Jeff Jacoby, a columnist for The Boston Globe, Link

YASSER ARAFAT died at age 75, lying in bed surrounded by familiar faces. He left this world peacefully, unlike the thousands of victims he sent to early graves.

In a better world, the PLO chief would have met his end on a gallows, hanged for mass murder much as the Nazi chiefs were hanged at Nuremberg. In a better world, the French president would not have paid a visit to the bedside of such a monster. In a better world, George Bush would not have said, on hearing the first reports that Arafat had died, "God bless his soul."

God bless his soul? What a grotesque idea! Bless the soul of the man who brought modern terrorism to the world? Who sent his agents to slaughter athletes at the Olympics, blow airliners out of the sky, bomb schools and pizzerias, machine-gun passengers in airline terminals? Who lied, cheated, and stole without compunction? Who inculcated the vilest culture of Jew-hatred since the Third Reich? Human beings might stoop to bless a creature so evil -- as indeed Arafat was blessed, with money, deference, even a Nobel Prize -- but God, I am quite sure, will damn him for eternity. [...]

How is it possible to reflect on Arafat's most enduring legacy -- the rise of modern terrorism -- without recalling the legions of men, women, and children whose lives he and his followers destroyed? If Osama bin Laden were on his deathbed, would we neglect to mention all those he murdered on 9/11?

It would take an encyclopedia to catalog all of the evil Arafat committed. But that is no excuse for not trying to recall at least some of it.

Perhaps his signal contribution to the practice of political terror was the introduction of warfare against children. On one black date in May 1974, three PLO terrorists slipped from Lebanon into the northern Israeli town of Ma'alot. They murdered two parents and a child whom they found at home, then seized a local school, taking more than 100 boys and girls hostage and threatening to kill them unless a number of imprisoned terrorists were released. When Israeli troops attempted a rescue, the terrorists exploded hand grenades and opened fire on the students. By the time the horror ended, 25 people were dead; 21 of them were children.

Thirty years later, no one speaks of Ma'alot anymore. The dead children have been forgotten. Everyone knows Arafat's name, but who ever recalls the names of his victims?

So let us recall them:

* Ilana Turgeman.
* Rachel Aputa.
* Yocheved Mazoz.
* Sarah Ben-Shim'on.
* Yona Sabag.
* Yafa Cohen.
* Shoshana Cohen.
* Michal Sitrok.
* Malka Amrosy.
* Aviva Saada.
* Yocheved Diyi.
* Yaakov Levi.
* Yaakov Kabla.
* Rina Cohen.
* Ilana Ne'eman.
* Sarah Madar.
* Tamar Dahan.
* Sarah Soper.
* Lili Morad.
* David Madar.
* Yehudit Madar.

The 21 dead children of Ma'alot -- 21 of the thousands of who died at Arafat's command.

Yasser TerrorFat cannot order Palestinian
children to murder Israeli children anymore

Mr. Arafat, also known by many as "Yasser TerrorFat", was a mass murderer, a liar, and a killer of children. He refused peace with Israel in October 2000 and stopped the Palestinians from getting a State of their own (click here for details). For these qualities he has earned the respect of the French, but the scorn and disgust of the civilized world.

Here's a partial list of terrorist operations Yasser TerrorFat was personally responsible for:

To understand Arafat's legacy, there is no better to place to start than the listings of Palestinian terrorist attacks in Israel since 1965 – or well before the Israelis took control of the West Bank and Gaza. Here is a listing of the some of the more prominent atrocities during Arafat's first decade of terrorism, first as the head of Fatah and then the PLO:

* Jan. 1, 1965: Fatah's first terror attack in Israel. (Other Palestinian armed groups had carried out many other terror attacks before this, however.)
* July 5, 1965: Fatah plant explosives at Mitzpe Massua, near Beit Guvrin; and on the railroad tracks to Jerusalem near Kafr Battir.
* 1965-67: A wave of Fatah bomb attacks target Israeli villages, water pipes, railroads. Homes are destroyed and Israelis are killed.
* Feb. 21, 1970: SwissAir flight 330, bound for Tel Aviv, is bombed by the PLO group PFLP in mid-flight, killing 47.
* May 21, 1970 PLO Shooting a Bazooka to the School bus of Moshav Avivim 10 kids plus 2 adult died, 24 wounded.
* Sept. 6, 1970: TWA, Pan Am, and BOAC airplanes are hijacked by the PLO.
* September 1970: The PLO attack Jordanian targets, then flee to Lebanon.
* Sept. 5, 1972: 11 Israeli athletes killed at the Munich Olympics by the PLO.
* March 1, 1973: Palestinian terrorists take over Saudi embassy in Khartoum and murder the United States' ambassador to Sudan, Cleo Noel and others.
* April 11, 1974: 18 residents of Kiryat Shmona in northern Israel are killed in their apartment building by the PLO who infiltrated from Lebanon.
* May 15, 1974: A school in Ma'alot is attacked by Palestinian terrorists who infiltrated from Lebanon. 26 Israelis, including many children, were killed.

Found the list on Dr. Pipes website at www.danielpipes.org. I copy the full article below (found the article on the excellent LGF), and I will be distributing candy to everyone I meet.

**May Yasser TerrorFat rot in hell surrounded by 72 virgins that look like him.**

Update: I have now added an excellent video from HonestReporting.com with shows how Yasser TerrorFat was an evil mass murdering bastard. See below for the details.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (6) |    Link to this page | 

Palestinian Mass Murderers kill 10 Israelis (03.14.2004)

Palestinian TerrorismThe Jerusalem Post (www.jpost.com) reports that two Palestinian mass murderers have blown themselves up in the port of the Israeli city of Ashdod, killing 11 Israelis and injuring dozens:

Ten Israelis were killed and 16 wounded, one critically, in the Ashdod attack late Sunday afternoon at Ashdod Port, a site considered to be one of the most sensitive, strategic, and supposedly heavily guarded locations in the country. [...]

Security officials believe the two planned to launch a mega-terrorist attack and blow themselves up near the port's bromine tanks, or other hazardous materials stored there. Had the terrorists succeeded in blowing up near the bromine tanks, the effects could have been devastating, with poisonous gases spreading to a 1.5-kilometer radius, killing thousands within minutes. [...]

[Palestinian Mass Murderer] Hamas spokesman Abdel Aziz Rantissi praised the two bombers, whom he called heroes, and warned that there would be more attacks. "The act is a present to the Arab world... Sharon brought destruction... no security fence, no terrorism, no US initiative will stop our resistance," he declared. Hours after the attack hundreds of Palestinians took to the streets in Gaza praising the two suicide bombers.

The Islamic mass murderers were very busy this week - butchering 199 innocent citizens of Spain and now once again hitting Israel.

I don't know what will be the response of Spain's government (a leftist, Socialist, government was elected tonight), but I know that Israel will not sit idle while the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the Hamas ("Islamic Resistance") and Arafat's thugs from the Al-Aksa brigades continue to execute their plans of genocide, homicide bombing after homicide bombing. My thoughts are with the Israeli soldiers who will fight and, eventually, win this war.

I copy the full article below.

Click here for more...

Posted by David Melle |    Email this entry
  Comments (1) |    Link to this page | 


This site contains some copyrighted materials the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.